PMEN Clones as at April 2006

No. Clone Reference no. ATCC no. Serotype Antibiotic susceptibilities (Etests) (µg/ml) Sequence Type GPSC MLST Profile PBP Profile erm/mef References
PEN CTX ERY CLIN CHL TET SXT
1 Spain23F-1 SP264 700669 23F 1.0 1.5 0.25 0.19 16 64.0 2.0 ST81 16 4-4-2-4-4-1-1 1-1-1 - 1, 2, 3
2 Spain6B-2 GM17 700670 6B 0.5 0.75 0.19 0.19 16 48.0 2.0 ST90 23 5-6-1-2-6-3-4 1-2-2 - 4
3 Spain9V-3 TL7/1993 700671 9V 1.5 0.75 0.125 0.19 3 0.5 1.5 ST156 6 7-11-10-1-6-8-1 1-1-1 - 1, 5
4 Tennessee23F-4 CS111 51916 23F 0.125 32.0 32 0.125 3 0.25 2.0 ST37 7 1-8-6-2-6-4-6 2-3-3 mef 6, 7
5 Spain14-5 MS22 700902 14 1.5 1.0 0.19 0.125 32 24.0 0.25 ST18 18 1-5-4-11-9-3-16 1-4-1 - 8
6 Hungary19A-6 HUN663 700673 19A 1.0 0.75 >256 >256 24 48.0 3.0 ST268 738 7-13-42-6-10-6-56 3-5-4 erm 4, 9
7 S.Africa19A-7 17619 700674 19A 0.19 0.094 0.25 0.19 4 1.0 4.0 ST75 5 2-13-8-25-25-6-8 4-6-5 - 10
8 S.Africa6B-8 50803 700675 6B 0.19 0.125 0.19 0.19 2 0.5 1.5 ST185 77 7-22-1-2-5-1-14 5-7-6 - 10
9 England14-9 PN93/872/B 700676 14 0.016 0.016 64 0.125 3 0.5 0.064 ST9 18 1-5-4-5-5-1-8 6-5-7 mef 11
10 CSR14-10 87-029055 700677 14 8.0 1.0 >256 >256 32 48.0 0.25 ST20 18 1-5-4-1-5-3-3 7-8-8 erm 12, 13
11 CSR19A-11 91-006571 700678 19A 6.0 0.5 >256 >256 24 64.0 2.0 ST175 18 7-5-4-26-10-3-55 7-8-8 erm 12, 13
12 Finland6B-12 43362 Fi10 700903 6B 4.0 0.75 >256 >256 8 64.0 6.0 ST270 23 5-6-43-2-6-1-28 1-9-1 erm 14
13 S.Africa19A-13 51702 700904 19A 1.5 0.5 >256 >256 24 48.0 4.0 ST41 631 1-8-9-5-11-1-12 8-10-9 erm 10
14 Taiwan19F-14 TW31 700905 19F 2.0 0.75 16 0.25 16 48.0 2.0 ST236 1 15-16-19-15-6-20-26 9-11-9 mef 15
15 Taiwan23F-15 Tw17 700906 23F 0.75 0.75 >256 >256 4 48.0 0.25 ST242 14 15-29-4-21-30-1-14 9-12-10 erm 15
16 Poland23F-16 178 BAA-343 23F 8.0 4.0 >256 0.25 16 64.0 1.5 ST173 681 7-13-8-1-10-6-36 4-13-1 - 16
17 Maryland6B-17 4752-98 BAA-342 6B 1.5 1.0 24 0.19 3 0.75 2.0 ST384 23 7-6-9-2-6-1-67 10-14-1 mef 17
18 Tennessee14-18 4954-98 BAA-340 14 4.0 12.0 >256 >256 3 32.0 2.0 ST67 16 2-8-7-4-6-1-1 11-15-11 erm 17
19 Colombia5-19 Spn1439-106 BAA-341 5 0.003 0.016 0.125 0.125 16 32.0 0.19 ST289 8 16-12-9-1-41-33-33 12-5-12 - 18
20 Poland6B-20 2708 BAA-612 6B 0.064 0.032 >256 >256 8 64.0 0.5 ST315 47 20-28-1-1-15-14-14 12-16-13 erm 16
21 Portugal19F-21 DCC98 BAA-657 19F 0.032 0.032 >256 >256 4 12.0 0.047 ST177 44 7-14-4-12-1-1-14 13-17-14 erm 19
22 Greece6B-22 GR890 BAA-658 6B 0.023 0.047 >256 >256 16 96.0 0.25 ST273 23 5-6-1-2-6-1-14 12-5-12 erm 20, 21
23 N.Carolina6A-23 97-1177 BAA-659 6A 1.0 0.75 4 0.19 3 0.5 1.0 ST376 97 6-11-1-1-15-72-77 9-18-15 mef 22
24 Utah35B-24 94-3330 BAA-660 35B 1.0 0.75 0.125 0.125 3 0.38 0.38 ST377 59 18-12-4-44-14-77-93 14-15-1 - 22
25 Sweden15A-25 DCC1476 BAA-661 15A 0.064 0.047 >256 >256 4 0.25 0.094 ST63 9 2-5-36-12-17-21-14 15-10-16 erm 19
26 Colombia23F-26 DCC1587 BAA-662 23F 0.064 0.094 0.19 0.19 4 0.5 0.094 ST338 5 7-13-8-6-1-6-8 12-6-17 - 19
27 Sweden1-27 PJ351/1 - 1 0.006 0.016 0.19 0.19 4 0.38 0.38 ST217 2 10-18-4-1-7-19-9 - - 23, 24
28 Sweden1-28 PJ755/1 - 1 0.006 0.016 0.19 0.125 2 0.25 0.047 ST306 31 12-8-13-5-16-4-20 - - 24, 25
29 USA1-29 NCTC7465 - 1 0.012 0.016 0.125 0.125 2 0.25 0.125 ST615 2 10-31-4-1-6-4-94 - - 24
30 Greece21-30 JJ273-21 - 21 0.016 0.094 0.25 0.125 3 0.25 0.125 ST193 11 8-10-2-16-1-26-1 - - 20, 26
31 Netherlands3-31 M264-3 - 3 0.023 0.023 0.19 0.125 4 0.38 0.047 ST180 12 7-15-2-10-6-1-22 - - 27
32 Denmark14-32 PN528 - 14 1.0 0.75 0.125 0.125 3 64.0 1.5 ST230 10 12-19-2-17-6-22-14 - - 28
33 Netherlands8-33 M270-8 - 8 0.016 0.023 0.19 0.19 3 0.38 0.032 ST53 3 2-5-1-11-16-3-14 - - 27
34 Denmark12F-34 M293-12F - 12F 0.016 0.016 0.19 0.19 3 0.25 0.047 ST218 32 10-20-14-1-6-1-29 - - 27
35 Netherlands14-35 M269-14 - 14 0.016 0.023 0.25 0.25 3 0.5 0.094 ST124 39 7-5-1-8-14-11-14 - - 27
36 Netherlands18C-36 M241-18C - 18C 0.023 0.023 0.125 0.19 3 0.38 0.064 ST113 50 7-2-1-1-10-1-21 - - 27
37 Netherlands15B-37 M254-15B - 15B 0.012 0.023 0.125 0.19 2 0.25 0.094 ST199 4 8-13-14-4-17-4-14 - - 27
38 Sweden4-38 M5-4 - 4 0.012 0.016 0.125 0.19 4 0.25 0.094 ST205 27 10-5-4-5-13-10-18 - - 27
39 Netherlands7F-39 M248-7F - 7F 0.012 0.016 0.19 0.19 3 0.5 0.094 ST191 15 8-9-2-1-6-1-17 - - 27
40 Sweden1-40 PJ537-1 - 1 0.012 0.012 0.125 0.125 2 0.19 0.125 ST304 31 13-8-13-5-17-4-8 - - 29
41 Portugal6A-41 DCC501 - 6A 0.012 0.023 0.125 0.125 3 0.38 0.75 ST327 29 1-5-7-12-10-1-14 - - 30
42 NorwayNT-42 1141/96 - NT 0.094 0.125 4 0.064 2 32.0 0.38 ST344 81 8-37-9-29-2-12-53 - mef 30
43 USANT-43 SP165 - NT 0.094 0.094 4 0.094 3 32.0 0.25 ST448 60 8-5-2-27-2-11-71 - - 31

CSR = The Czechoslovakian Republic

PEN = penicillin; CTX = cefotaxime; ERY = erythromycin; CLIN = clindamycin; CHL = chloramphenicol; TET = tetracycline; SXT = trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole

GPSC (Global Pneumococcal Sequence Cluster):
Go to this page for more information on GPSC.

MLST (Multilocus Sequence Typing) Profile:
aroE (shikimate dehydrogenae) - gdh (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) - gki (glucose kinase) - recP (transketolase) - spi (signal peptidase) - xpt (xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) - ddl (D-alanine-D-alanine ligase)

PBP (Penicillin-binding Protein) Profile:
pbp1a - pbp2b - pbp2x

erm = erm(B) gene; mef = mef(A) gene

References

  1. Coffey, T. J., C. G. Dowson, M. Daniels, J. Zhou, C. Martin, B. G. Spratt and J. M. Musser. 1991. Horizontal transfer of multiple penicillin-binding protein genes, and capsular biosynthetic genes, in natural populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 5:2255-2260.
  2. McDougal, L. K., R. Facklam, M. Reeves, S. Hunter, J. M. Swenson, B. C. Hill and F. C. Tenover. 1992. Analysis of multiply antimicrobial-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:2176-2184.
  3. Munoz, R., T. J. Coffey, M. Daniels, C. G. Dowson, G. Laible, J. Casal, R. Hakenbeck, M. Jacobs, J. M. Musser, B. G. Spratt and A. Tomasz. 1991. Intercontinental spread of a multiresistant clone of serotype 23F Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 164:302-306.
  4. Munoz, R., J. M. Musser, M. Crain, D. E. Briles, A. Marton, A. J. Parkinson, U. Sorensen and A. Tomasz. 1992. Geographic distribution of penicillin-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterisation by penicillin-binding protein profile, surface protein A typing, and multilocus enzyme analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:112-118.
  5. Lefèvre, J. C., M. A. Bertrand, and G. Faucon. 1995. Molecular analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from Toulouse, France. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:491-497.
  6. McDougal, L. K., J. K. Rasheed, J. W. Biddle and F. C. Tenover. 1995. Identification of multiple clones of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2282-2288.
  7. Sloas, M. M., F. F. Barrett, P. J. Chesney, B. K. English, B. C. Hill, F. C. Tenover and R. J. Leggiadro. 1992. Cephalosporin treatment failure in penicillin and cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 11:662-666.
  8. Coffey, T. J., S. Berrón, M. Daniels, E. Garcia-Leoni, E. Cercenado, E. Bouza, A. Fenoll and B. G. Spratt. 1996. Multiply antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from Spanish hospitals (1988-1994): novel major clones of serotypes 14, 19F and 15F. Microbiology 142:2747-2757.
  9. Marton, A., M. Gulyas, R. Munoz and A. Tomasz. 1991. Extremely high incidence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hungary. J. Infect. Dis. 163:542-548.
  10. Smith, A. M. and K. P. Klugman. 1997. Three predominant clones identified within penicillin-resistant South African isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb. Drug Resist. 3:385-389.
  11. Hall, L. M., R. A. Whiley, B. Duke, R. C. George and A. Efstratiou. 1996. Genetic relatedness within and between serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United Kingdom: analysis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial resistance patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:853-859.
  12. Figueiredo, A. M., R. Austrian, P. Urbaskova, L. A. Teixeira and A. Tomasz. 1995. Novel penicillin-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Microb. Drug Resist. 1:71-78.
  13. Jabes, D., S. Nachman and A. Tomasz. 1989. Penicillin-binding protein families: evidence for the clonal nature of penicillin-resistance in clinical isolates of pneumococci. J. Infect. Dis. 159:16-25.
  14. Sibold, C., J. Wang, J. Henrichsen and R. Hakenbeck. 1992. Genetic relationships of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated on different continents. Infect. Immun. 60:4119-4126.
  15. Shi, Z.-Y., M. C. Enright, P. Wilkinson, D. Griffiths and B. G. Spratt. 1998. Identification of the three major clones of multiply antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwanese hospitals by multilocus sequencing typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:3514-3519.
  16. Overweg, K., P. W. M. Hermans, K. Trzcinski, M. Sluijter, R. de Groot and W. Hryniewicz. 1999. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Poland: identification of emerging clones. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1739-1745.
  17. Gherardi G., C.G. Whitney, R.R. Facklam and B. Beall. 2000. Major related sets of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in the United States as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and pbp1a-pbp2b-pbp2x-dhf restriction profiles. J. Infect. Dis. 181:216-29.
  18. Tamayo M., R. Sa-Leao, I. Santos Sanches, E. Castaneda and H. de Lencastre. 1999. Dissemination of a chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant but penicillin-susceptible invasive clone of serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2337-42.
  19. Sa-Leao R., A. Tomasz, I.S. Sanches, A. Brito-Avo, S.E. Vilhelmsson, K.G. Kristinsson, H. de Lencastre. 2000. Carriage of internationally spread clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae with unusual drug resistance patterns in children attending day care centers in Lisbon, Portugal. J. Infect. Dis. 182:1153-60.
  20. Syrogiannopoulos G.A,, I.N. Grivea, N.G. Beratis, A.E. Spiliopoulou, E.L. Fasola, S. Bajaksouzian, P.C. Appelbaum, M.R. Jacobs. 1997. Resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae from carriers attending day-care centers in southwestern Greece. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:188-94.
  21. Syrogiannopoulos G.A., F. Ronchetti, R. Dagan, I. Grivea, M.P. Ronchetti, N. Porat, T.A. Davies, R. Ronchetti, P.C. Appelbaum, M.R. Jacobs. 2000. Mediterranean clone of penicillin-susceptible, multidrug-resistant serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae in Greece, Italy and Israel. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 16:219-24.
  22. Richter S.S., K.P. Heilmann, S.L. Coffman, H.K. Huynh, A.B. Brueggemann, M.A. Pfaller, G.V. Doern. 2002. The molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1994-2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:330-339.
  23. Porat N., R. Trefler, R. Dagan. 2002. Persistence of two invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae clones of serotypes 1 and 5 in comparison to that of multiple clones of serotypes 6B and 23F among children in southern Israel. J Clin Microbiol. 39:1827-32.
  24. Brueggemann AB, Spratt BG. 2003. Geographic distribution and clonal diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 41:4966-70.
  25. Henriques Normark B, Kalin M, Ortqvist A, Akerlund T, Liljequist BO, Hedlund J, Svenson SB, Zhou J, Spratt BG, Normark S, Kallenius G. 2001. Dynamics of penicillin-susceptible clones in invasive pneumococcal disease. J Infect Dis. 184:861-9.
  26. Bogaert D, Syrogiannopoulos GA, Grivea IN, de Groot R, Beratis NG, Hermans PW. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Greece. J Clin Microbiolv. 38:4361-6.
  27. Enright MC, Spratt BG. 1998. A multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease. Microbiology. 144:3049-60.
  28. Pantosti A, Gherardi G, Conte M, Faella F, Dicuonzo G, Beall B. 2002. A novel, multiple drug-resistant, serotype 24F strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused meningitis in patients in Naples, Italy. Clin Infect Dis. 35:205-8.
  29. Brandileone MC, Di Fabio JL, Vieira VS, Zanella RC, Casagrande ST, Pignatari AC, Tomasz A. 1998. Geographic distribution of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Brazil: genetic relatedness. Microb Drug Resist. 4:209-17.
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